There is a strong interdependance between Ayurveda and ancient Indian philosophical thought. Thereby Hinduism is not the only religion that is closely related to Ayurveda. There was a time in India where Buddhism played a significant role and this specific religious thought had a strong influence on Ayurveda. Ref.Heinrich Zimmer YOGA and Buddhism

Similar to Christianity, trinity is also an integral part of Hinduism: Brahma is the creator of the world, Vishnu is the preservor of the universe

and Shiva is the destroyer. They symbolise BIRTH, EXISTENCE, DEATH. The Aryan pantheon of Gods in ancient India did not include goddesses. The original inhabitants of India were matriachic oriented; their goddesses were strong and powerful and intermingled with the male dominated pantheon of Aryan gods. Shiva fell head over heals in love with Parvati, the daughter of the Himalayan mountains. Culturally seen the ancient godhead won over the new as the marriage took place between the two immortal lovers. Though Shiva is called the Lord (isvara) but it is his spouse Parvati who is all powerfull (shakti) the indomitable feminine force. Without her Shiva is a nonentity, a Shava (corpse). She is the life giving force. To draw parallels in oxidental  thought the nearest to this would be the two very important definitions which is used even today: Eros and Thanatos.
Shiva-Shakti =Eros -Thanatos.
Shiva-Shakti =Ying and Yang

If one looks at the history of origin of Ayurveda one sees that Hindu mythology played an important role. Once upon a time the gods and the demons worked together to obtain the nectar of immortality (amrita) from the ocean of milch. An immense battle took place between the gods and the demons to gain sovereignty over this nectar. But the gods won this epic battle.
One can naturally ask today what does Ayurveda have to do with the mythology of India? The classification of Ayurveda as an integrative part of vedic manifestation is justified mythologically. There are enough mythical tales to substantiate this fact. (prakriti:the dynamic energy of consciousness; natural constitution; nature)

Per definition Prakriti is the origin of creation. In this Nature, resides complete balance. The three basic forces (GUNAS) Purity  (SATTVA), Passion (RAJAS) Heaviness/Darkness (TAMAS) do not appear yet since they neutralise each other.

The world of Ayurveda rotates in the axis of  balance. Disbalance is the root of all ailments and diseases (VIKRITI).
The basic princple of Ayurvedic theory rests on the restoration of balance, which implies that  the emergence of disbalance/flaws (dosha) perhaps of a physical and mental nature, is a result of a loss of equilibrium which needs to be restored and brought back to its original natural state.
Yoga uses similar methods, that is to reconstitute the condition of lost equilibrium. Yoga differentiates itself in an essential point from Ayurveda: the aim of Ayurveda is to achieve a long and healthy life span, the aspiration of  Yoga aspires to liberate itself from relative existence  by overcomming the drive of self – preservation.

Ayurveda and wellness  have a lot in common. Both methods believe that the key to health are  held in the hands of  living an active life. This can only be achieved  by recognising  the different influences and background story and through an awareness of perception that enhances this form or way of life.
The self-image of Ayurveda is not based on dogmas and theorems but on the right awareness.This once again touches the point of correct awareness and insight  which the following classification shows.

CONSTITUENT FACTORS OF AWARENESS

One of the most significant aspect of learning the Ayurvedic school of medicine is obtaining the capability of perception.

Translated by Paramita Lahiri

Source: Raimund Mueller